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7 Types of Plot Twists in Movies

7 Types of Plot Twists in Movies

“Wow, this is a real plot twist!” Surely you have often heard the term plot twist? But do you already know what a plot twist means? And what are the types of plot twists in films? Let’s discuss it!

What Are Plot Twists?

A plot twist is a plot twist or twists in a story. In other words, a plot twist will present an unexpected storyline or even give a surprise effect. So that’s why the term plot twist is increasingly being used in everyday conversation.

Previously, we released articles about 3 things to pay attention to in making plot twists and 6 films with the most epic plot twists. If interested, click on the link right away.

Okay, now we discuss the types of plot twists in films. There are at least 7 types of plot twists that we often encounter. Anything? Let’s discuss them one by one!

Types of Plot Twists



Anagnorisis means “discovery”. This type of plot twist occurs when the protagonist suddenly recognizes/realizes something about himself or about another character. Examples of films: The Sixth Sense (1999), The Others (2001).

False Protagonist

As the name implies, a false protagonist or false protagonist is a type of plot twist whose plot leads the audience to believe one of the characters as the protagonist of the story. However, at one point in the story, it turns out that this character is not the protagonist.

Deus Ex Machina

Deus ex machina is taken from the Latin for “God out of the machine”, meaning an unexpected event or help from God that suddenly appears and helps characters who are in trouble, without considering the elements of cause and effect.

The Game


An unexpected solution that turns things around, and usually benefits the protagonist. Peripeteia is similar to Deus ex Machina, but the difference is that with Deus ex Machina, Peripeteia must be in a logical framework (cause and effect) that already exists in the story. Example of a film: The Game (1997).

Poetic Justice

Poetic Justice

Poetic justice occurs when a character is rewarded or punished for his actions. Poetic justice is often used for stories that want to give an element of sweet revenge to the role of the antagonist. Example of a film: Scream (1996).

Knives Out

Red Herrings

Red Herring’s plot twist is oriented toward misinformation. The audience is led to follow information in the wrong direction, and is not aware of it, until it is revealed. Usually uses fake clues to keep the audience guessing. Examples of films: Knives Out (2019), and Murder on the Orient Express (2017).

Unreliable Narrator

A narrator who seems to give a story that contains the truth, so that the audience is made to believe throughout the film. In the end, the audience knows that all the stories mentioned by the narrator are wrong. Examples of films: The Usual Suspect (1995), and A Beautiful Mind (2001).


Producer: Understanding and Duties in Filmmaking

Film producer is an equivalent word that may already be familiar to our ears. But do we know the producer’s job in film production? Sometimes people are confused about the difference between a producer and a director, even though their duties are clearly very different.

So, without further ado, let’s discuss and thoroughly discuss the producer!

What is a Film Producer?

Producer is someone who is responsible for managing and overseeing the process of making a film from start to finish. Producers are involved in all processes of filmmaking, from development, fundraising, pre-production, production, and post-production, until the film is distributed and meets the audience.

You could say the producer is the “Chief Executive Officer (CEO)” of a film. While the director is the “Chief Creative Officer (CCO)” of film production. The director and producer are partners who always work together. Some even call the relationship between the director and producer like a husband and wife relationship, referring to the closeness and shared vision between the two.

Producer Duties In Development

The idea of ​​a film can come from anyone, be it a producer, writer, or director. However, a producer will determine whether the idea will be developed further into a film or not.

Of course, with all the considerations, starting from an interest in the story, interest in the issues raised or seeing the business potential of the idea if it is made into a film later.

  1. Hiring Writers: If a producer is interested in an idea, the producer will work with the writer to turn the idea into a film script, and the writer will work under the supervision of the producer in developing the story.
  2. Budgeting: The producer will estimate the film production budget from the existing script draft for the need to raise funds for investors. Which will have a big impact on budgeting, fees for actors and crew who will be involved in film production, shooting locations, and the number of shooting days.
  3. Fundraising: When the script draft and budgeting have been completed, the producer will start looking for parties who have the potential to cooperate to fund this film project, either with other production houses, film studios, individual investors, corporate investors, or any party interested in the project. This movie. The producer will make an agreement with the parties regarding the return of capital and profit sharing with each party.

Producer Duties In Preproduction

Pre-production is the stage in making a film where the finished script is broken down for various purposes such as budgeting, scheduling, to categorization. Here’s what producers have to do:

  1. Budgeting: The Producer will work with the Implementing Producer to make a more detailed breakdown of the budgeting based on the final draft. It’s normal to have detailed breakdowns for crew needs, cast, location, day, camera and lighting equipment, artistic, clothing, makeup and hair, transportation, food and drinks, accommodation, to post-production needs.
  2. Forming a Team: The Producer will work closely with the Executing Producer to form a team consisting of crews from various departments, such as directing, production, casting, camera and lighting, artistic, clothing stylists, and post-production teams.
  3. Casting: Producers will work with the director and casting director to find suitable actors to act in the film. There are several considerations of producers in choosing actors, such as acting ability, compatibility with characters, popularity, and actor portfolio in previous films.

Monitoring Production Preparation: During the production, preparation process, the director will make the director’s treatment and storyboard. The producer will monitor and become a discussion partner of the director in the creative development process in preparation for production.

Producer Duties In Production

The production stage is the stage where the film script is translated into images and sound, or better known as the shooting process. In the process of filming, this is what producers have to do:

  1. Monitoring the Overall Production: During the shooting process, the director who will lead the crew and actors on the field, and the producer can monitor whether the shooting process is going well and according to plan.
  2. Discussion Friends: Sometimes during the shooting process, the director needs friends to share ideas in making a scene. The producer can be a good discussion partner for the director because the producer can provide another perspective.

Producer Duties In Post-production

After the shooting process is complete, all the shooting results will be brought to the post-production house (post-house). The image editor or editor will start selecting the results of the shoot and then assemble them according to the script. In post-production, here’s what a producer has to do:

  1. Monitoring the Post-Production Process: Producers can provide their opinion on the editing process, be it for storytelling purposes or other considerations for film sales.

Producer Duties in Distribution

After the film is finished, the producer will distribute the film, according to what was planned at the beginning, be it to domestic cinemas, film festivals, or OTT (Over-the-top).

Such are the tasks performed by producers from the beginning to the end of film production. Hopefully can get an idea of ​​​​the function of a producer in a film.