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7 Types of Plot Twists in Movies

7 Types of Plot Twists in Movies

“Wow, this is a real plot twist!” Surely you have often heard the term plot twist? But do you already know what a plot twist means? And what are the types of plot twists in films? Let’s discuss it!

What Are Plot Twists?

A plot twist is a plot twist or twists in a story. In other words, a plot twist will present an unexpected storyline or even give a surprise effect. So that’s why the term plot twist is increasingly being used in everyday conversation.

Previously, we released articles about 3 things to pay attention to in making plot twists and 6 films with the most epic plot twists. If interested, click on the link right away.

Okay, now we discuss the types of plot twists in films. There are at least 7 types of plot twists that we often encounter. Anything? Let’s discuss them one by one!

Types of Plot Twists



Anagnorisis means “discovery”. This type of plot twist occurs when the protagonist suddenly recognizes/realizes something about himself or about another character. Examples of films: The Sixth Sense (1999), The Others (2001).

False Protagonist

As the name implies, a false protagonist or false protagonist is a type of plot twist whose plot leads the audience to believe one of the characters as the protagonist of the story. However, at one point in the story, it turns out that this character is not the protagonist.

Deus Ex Machina

Deus ex machina is taken from the Latin for “God out of the machine”, meaning an unexpected event or help from God that suddenly appears and helps characters who are in trouble, without considering the elements of cause and effect.

The Game


An unexpected solution that turns things around, and usually benefits the protagonist. Peripeteia is similar to Deus ex Machina, but the difference is that with Deus ex Machina, Peripeteia must be in a logical framework (cause and effect) that already exists in the story. Example of a film: The Game (1997).

Poetic Justice

Poetic Justice

Poetic justice occurs when a character is rewarded or punished for his actions. Poetic justice is often used for stories that want to give an element of sweet revenge to the role of the antagonist. Example of a film: Scream (1996).

Knives Out

Red Herrings

Red Herring’s plot twist is oriented toward misinformation. The audience is led to follow information in the wrong direction, and is not aware of it, until it is revealed. Usually uses fake clues to keep the audience guessing. Examples of films: Knives Out (2019), and Murder on the Orient Express (2017).

Unreliable Narrator

A narrator who seems to give a story that contains the truth, so that the audience is made to believe throughout the film. In the end, the audience knows that all the stories mentioned by the narrator are wrong. Examples of films: The Usual Suspect (1995), and A Beautiful Mind (2001).


Producer: Understanding and Duties in Filmmaking

Film producer is an equivalent word that may already be familiar to our ears. But do we know the producer’s job in film production? Sometimes people are confused about the difference between a producer and a director, even though their duties are clearly very different.

So, without further ado, let’s discuss and thoroughly discuss the producer!

What is a Film Producer?

Producer is someone who is responsible for managing and overseeing the process of making a film from start to finish. Producers are involved in all processes of filmmaking, from development, fundraising, pre-production, production, and post-production, until the film is distributed and meets the audience.

You could say the producer is the “Chief Executive Officer (CEO)” of a film. While the director is the “Chief Creative Officer (CCO)” of film production. The director and producer are partners who always work together. Some even call the relationship between the director and producer like a husband and wife relationship, referring to the closeness and shared vision between the two.

Producer Duties In Development

The idea of ​​a film can come from anyone, be it a producer, writer, or director. However, a producer will determine whether the idea will be developed further into a film or not.

Of course, with all the considerations, starting from an interest in the story, interest in the issues raised or seeing the business potential of the idea if it is made into a film later.

  1. Hiring Writers: If a producer is interested in an idea, the producer will work with the writer to turn the idea into a film script, and the writer will work under the supervision of the producer in developing the story.
  2. Budgeting: The producer will estimate the film production budget from the existing script draft for the need to raise funds for investors. Which will have a big impact on budgeting, fees for actors and crew who will be involved in film production, shooting locations, and the number of shooting days.
  3. Fundraising: When the script draft and budgeting have been completed, the producer will start looking for parties who have the potential to cooperate to fund this film project, either with other production houses, film studios, individual investors, corporate investors, or any party interested in the project. This movie. The producer will make an agreement with the parties regarding the return of capital and profit sharing with each party.

Producer Duties In Preproduction

Pre-production is the stage in making a film where the finished script is broken down for various purposes such as budgeting, scheduling, to categorization. Here’s what producers have to do:

  1. Budgeting: The Producer will work with the Implementing Producer to make a more detailed breakdown of the budgeting based on the final draft. It’s normal to have detailed breakdowns for crew needs, cast, location, day, camera and lighting equipment, artistic, clothing, makeup and hair, transportation, food and drinks, accommodation, to post-production needs.
  2. Forming a Team: The Producer will work closely with the Executing Producer to form a team consisting of crews from various departments, such as directing, production, casting, camera and lighting, artistic, clothing stylists, and post-production teams.
  3. Casting: Producers will work with the director and casting director to find suitable actors to act in the film. There are several considerations of producers in choosing actors, such as acting ability, compatibility with characters, popularity, and actor portfolio in previous films.

Monitoring Production Preparation: During the production, preparation process, the director will make the director’s treatment and storyboard. The producer will monitor and become a discussion partner of the director in the creative development process in preparation for production.

Producer Duties In Production

The production stage is the stage where the film script is translated into images and sound, or better known as the shooting process. In the process of filming, this is what producers have to do:

  1. Monitoring the Overall Production: During the shooting process, the director who will lead the crew and actors on the field, and the producer can monitor whether the shooting process is going well and according to plan.
  2. Discussion Friends: Sometimes during the shooting process, the director needs friends to share ideas in making a scene. The producer can be a good discussion partner for the director because the producer can provide another perspective.

Producer Duties In Post-production

After the shooting process is complete, all the shooting results will be brought to the post-production house (post-house). The image editor or editor will start selecting the results of the shoot and then assemble them according to the script. In post-production, here’s what a producer has to do:

  1. Monitoring the Post-Production Process: Producers can provide their opinion on the editing process, be it for storytelling purposes or other considerations for film sales.

Producer Duties in Distribution

After the film is finished, the producer will distribute the film, according to what was planned at the beginning, be it to domestic cinemas, film festivals, or OTT (Over-the-top).

Such are the tasks performed by producers from the beginning to the end of film production. Hopefully can get an idea of ​​​​the function of a producer in a film.

The Card Counter

The Film “The Card Counter” Highlights Card Counting Systems in Gambling

A former military interrogator turns into a gambler haunted by his past. All of this is told in director Paul Schrader’s suspenseful drama, “The Card Counter.”

The film “The Card Counter” features the figure of William Tell, played by actor Oscar Isaac. William Tell is a gambler who is adept at counting cards, as a chance to win at gambling. This ability he learned self-taught while in a military prison.

Now, as a gambler, his trademark is to bet small amounts and win naturally. One day he meets a young man who wants to take revenge for what happened to his family. He also tried to help the young man not to commit a crime by inviting him to gamble.

To get into his role, actor, Oscar Isaac learned about the art of playing cards or cardistry, specifically how to play a deck of cards. However, to be able to recognize the psychological side of his character more deeply, of course, requires further effort.

One of them is through a book called “The Body Keeps the Score” which was introduced by director Paul Schrader about trauma.

“What’s interesting is when I see the trauma that (William’s character) has caused, which is the result of trauma that (William) has caused other people. I’ve also watched documentaries that deal with the conflict over Leavenworth prison and what happened at Abu Ghraib (red- which is the background of the story in the film),” Oscar Isaac told the Associated Press.

Tiffany Haddish

Actress Tiffany Haddish who is famous through the comedy television series “The Carmichael Show” also plays in this film as a gambling agent named, La Linda. He didn’t know how to count cards himself, but knew people who could.

“Am I good at counting cards? No. Do I know that counting is going on (in the game)? Yes,” Tiffany Haddish told the Associated Press.

When comparing the world of Hollywood to the game of poker, Tiffany said that she was always taught to show facial expressions like poker players, who never show true emotion.

However, to the Associated Press, he admitted that he was a person who was always open and let people know his feelings. Especially when he needs help.

Tye Sheridan

The film “The Card Counter” also features actor Tye Sheridan, who is famous for the film “Ready Player One.” In this film Tye plays a young man who wants to take revenge for what happened to his family.

“I’m good at math. I think I got better at it when I was in school where I studied every day. Now being a poker player in movies, it’s an excuse for me to learn how to count cards,” Tye Sheridan told the Associated Press.

Director Paul Schrader himself said that research on poker was not too difficult and he could do it in one day. It would be a different matter if he worked on a film about horticulture, which, if he researched it could take a lifetime or even have no end.

“Poker isn’t hard to learn. I could do a lifetime of research or (if) do a film about horticulture. Poker can be learned in a day,” he told the Associated Press.

However, according to him to be able to play poker and card counting, one must have a mathematical mind.

“You have to be able to see all the cards and the chances of all the players. It’s a skill you can practice,” he said again.

The film “The Card Counter”, which was produced by the famous director Martin Scorsese, is now showing in America. Until now, the film, which also features actor Willem Dafoe has earned as much as 3.4 million US dollars.